Frequently Asked Question

What is Level-1, Level-2, Level-3 Charging?

Level1

LEVEL 1

120VAC
MAX POWER 1.92 KW

Level 1 charging equipment pro­vides charging at 120 volt alter­nating current (VAC) plug. Level 1 charging is equivalent to or refers to the use of a standard house­hold outlet. The average time to complete a charge of an average EV battery pack from empty to full charge is about 40 hours.

Level 2 Graphics

LEVEL 2

240AC
MAX POWER 19.2 KW

Level 2 charging equipment pro­vides charging at 208-240 VAC. Installation of a home charger or a public charger require a dedicated 208-240VAC40-80ampcircuit.The average time to complete a charge of an average EV battery pack from empty to full charge is about 11 hours

Level 3 Graphics

LEVEL 3

300 - 460 DC
MAX POWER 400 KW

Level 3 charging equipment pro­vides direct current (DC) fast­charging that typically ranges between 300-460V DC. Typically this requires large installations of transformers and power distribu­tion equipment. The average time to complete a charge of an aver­age EV battery pack from empty to full charge is about 30 minutes.

Why portable charging?

Do you have Range Anxiety? Do you worry about running out of charge and being stranded? MarsCharge, Inc.™ has you covered.

If you are ever stranded with your EV, you will most likely have to call a tow service. However, with a MarsCharger™ in your trunk, you’ll have a backup power boost to get you the next charging station.

Do you live in a dense urban area like New York City or San Francisco? Is it difficult to find parking, especially parking with an EV charger? MarsCharge, Inc.™ has you covered.

EVs can be FlexiCharged™ virtually anywhere with individual MarsChargers™ or with many MarsChargers™ snapped into a portable Snap­Charge™ Network. MarsChargers’™ ruggedness and reliability can stand up to any of the stresses of the urban environment.

Portable Charging on Busy Street
Road Assistance Portable Charging

Do you own an apartment building, office building, or parking garage where space is scarce and typical EV chargers are too difficult to install? MarsCharge, Inc.™ has you covered.

MarsChargers™ can be easily wheeled around the garage, and SnapCharge™ Networks require considerably less installation requirements compared to traditional DC fast-chargers. MarsCharge, Inc. product ecosytem is the most efficient and cost-effective way to transform any parking garage into a fully fledged EV charging station while also acting as the building’s backup power supply.

Portable Charging at Parking Garage

Do you have a towing, road-side assistant, or automotive service of any kind? Are you looking for a full-fledged EV charging solution for your customers? Are you an Uber® driver, a memeber of AirBnB®, or any other type participant in the ‘shared economy’ looking for supplement income? MarsCharge, Inc.™ has you covered.

MarsChargers™ are the perfect tool for any auto service provider. Also, any owner of MarsCharge, lnc’s products can choose to use oue peer­to-peer platform via smartphone (or any other internet device) to provide to any EV driver on the platform requesting on-demand charging. Users signal in the same geographical area can signal to one another bid prices, geolocations, and schedules.

Why does excessive fast-charging degrade a battery pack’s longevity?

Understanding the issues related DC charging requires an understanding of its counterintuitive science. The diagram below shows the key technical difference between Level-1 or Level-2 charging versus Level-3 charging. With Level-1 or Level-2 charging, AC power (green) is passed into the EV’s on board charger, which then converts AC power to the DC power (red) needed to charge the battery pack. (All battery packs are DC.) With a Level-3 DC Fast-Charging, the charger provides the necessary DC power (red), the EV’s on-board charger is bypassed; the charger directly charges the battery pack. Greater power output by a Level-3 charger does not always provide faster charging, because it is the amount of charge a battery pack can accept that determines the charging speed. During charging, ions pass through the battery’s electrolyte to oxidize intercalated lithium. The individual battery cells have certain resistivity limiting the rate at which ions can pass from the an­ode to cathode, which ultimately determines charging speed.

Level1 or 2 Level 1 or 2 Max Power 1.92 kW or 19.2 kW
Level3 Max Power 400kw

All mass market electric vehicles run on lithium-ion batteries. The top-right image gives a general overview of the various ways cell degradation occurs and its effects. Manufacturers of lithium ion battery cells give guidelines on limiting current and voltage during the charging and discharging of the batteries, as well as guidelines on an operable temperature range. Going beyond these parameters can lead to a variety of issues. For instance, in the case of most modern cylindrical cells (shown to the right) excessive heat may cause a build-up of dendrite growth in the organic electrolyte, and in extreme cases, this can cause a catastrophic short within the cell leading to fires in excess of 1000F. Fast-charging in particular can lead to a breakdown of the particles that comprise the lithium intercalated structure (bottom-right image) of the anode material. Microscopic imaging below shows the degradation of anode material under different parameters over numerous cycles. Slower charging can be good for battery health and extend its overall life.

Li-Ion Battery Cell Degradation
Li-Ion Battery Cell Degradation